What Would We Expect to Find
if the World had Flooded?
- We would expect to observe a uniform, worldwide blanket
of randomly sorted boulders, cobbles, sand, and silt overlain by a layer of
clay. But this worldwide blanket does not exist.
- We would expect to see no sorting in regard to sediment type
and size. No creationist has ever explained how the Flood could have deposited
layers of heavy sediment on top of layers of lighter sediment.
- There would be mega-ripples everywhere such as are seen along
the Columbia River formed by the rapid movement of the waters off the land
surface. No mega-ripples evident.
- There would be no segregation of fossils. If all organisms
lived at the same time, we would expect to see trilobites, brachiopods, ammonites,
dinosaurs, and mammals (including humans) all randomly mixed together in the
worldwide blanket described in point #1. This is not what is observed. The
fossil record exhibits an order consistent with the theory of evolution (but
inconsistent with creationism).
- There are at least five major extinction events, a situation
where fossils are abundant below a certain line within the geological layers,
but totally absent above that line. There is no way to explain these geological
features with a global flood.
- Igneous (volcanic) rocks, if they existed at all in flood
sediments, would all be in the form of pillow lava, which are extruded underwater.
In reality, there are very clearly defined volcanic layers, from which radiometric
dates are obtained. So how can we have flat layers of vocanic rock, compressed
between other layers, occuring during an "ultramassive flood"?
- Metamorphic rocks, as they are formed from previously existing
rocks, would not exist in the post-Flood geological layers because the necessary
heating and cooling require millions of years for large bodies. All radioactive
isotopes which would not have completely decayed away in, say 10,000 years,
would exist in nature because those with a moderately short half-life would
not have had time to decay.
- No varves, ice cores, tree ring ensembles, coral cores, or
other examples of periodically accumulated accretion should not be found to
extend back beyond the time of the Flood. But they do. Ice cores, drilled
from stable ice plains, show 40,000 years of annual layers. Varves, which
are mineral deposits, show millions of years of annual layers.
- Because of the catastrophic force of the marine environment
and the lack of exposure of the land during the flood, we would expect to
find no examples at all in the geologic record of the following delicate fossils
or evidence for land deposition
dinosaur nests ant nests termite nests bird nests (of a relative of the flamingo
in the Green River Formation in Wyoming)
>>fragile wasp nests
>>complex rodent burrows
>>animal dung left in its original position of deposition as it hardened
on dry, solid ground trackways of land animals
>>raindrop imprints fossilized mudcracks
>>fragile things preserved as fossils, such as bird feathers (Confuciusornis)
ferns (adjacent to coal beds) insects (Oligocene lake beds near Florrisant,
CO), oxidized rocks layers (redbeds) because there is insufficient oxygen
in the water to oxidize (bring up) the iron present. All these fragile features
are found deep in the geological record.
A catastrophic flood would have destroyed them. I would
especially like you to consider how raindrop imprints and mudcracks could
have become fossilized in a sudden, massive flood.
- We would expect to find no thick subsurface evaporites (halite,
sylvite, and gypsum). It would be impossible to precipitate them from a marine
environment. There would be genetic evidence of a recent population bottleneck
in all extant species. There is no such genetic bottleneck, dating from 6-10
thousand years ago.
- There would be some remnant evidence of pre-Flood civilization(s)
and obviously pre-Flood humans. The Institute for Creation Research has not
established any criteria for what a pre-Flood human might be like (instead
consigning all "degenerate" fossils like erectus and neanderthal to post-Flood).
- There would just be one age from the top to the bottom of
the geological column. In other words, whether you pick a rock from the top
of the Grand Canyon or the very bottom, they both should be dated at 10,000
years old.In fact there are very real increases in age as one digs deeper
down in the column. If the flood DID happen, then all the geological stratum
were laid down in just one year, containing all those pesky bones. That evidence
- We should expect that all mountain ranges (being all formed
during or immediately after the Flood) should show similar, near equal amounts
of erosion. They don't. If the flood occurred about 10,000 years ago, the
polar ice caps should have no more than 5000 annual layers. Or, at the very
least, there should be massive evidence of melting and salt water intrusion
at that time. There is no evidence of massive melting.
- Had a flood occurred, all plants alive today should have
seeds which could remain viable in hot, humid conditions for a year, or which
can survive prolonged submersion in sea water. All plants should be able to
grow with little or no topsoil. In reality, most can't.
- In regard to fossils, there are three very important predictions
if the Global Flood really occurred, and is responsible for depositing fossils
within the strata:
A) None of the marine fossils would be encrusted by other fossils, or show
any sign of boring by organisms after death.
B) None of the vertebrate fossils should show signs of scavenging or prolonged
weathering by exposure on the ground.
C) None of the vertebrate fossils should be encrusted by pedogenic carbonate,
such as the fossils in the Karoo of South Africa and the Badlands of South
In other words, if the Flood happened, fossil vertebrates should consist only
of freshly broken bone exhibiting no sign of scavenging or of having lain
on the ground or sea bottom for a long period of time.
- Zoogeography should show a dispersal pattern demonstrating
that the point of origin of all species is in the Middle East (the disembarking
point for Noah's ark). It doesn't. It shows different points of origins for
- The Hawaiian Islands and associated coral structures should
all be found to be more recent than the Flood. They aren't.
- There should be isotopes with half lives of less than 80
million years in the biosphere. The fact that there are none argues very strongly
for an earth with an age far older than 10,000 years. (This point is not so
much about the flood in particular, but presents an irrefutable argument in
favor of an ancient earth. . This evidence has never been refuted by any creationist.(Click
here to read a technical explanation: http:/www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Temple/9917/isotopes.html
- Fossilized plants should be represented equally throughout
all the geological layers, with no sorting from 'primitive' to 'modern'. This
is not the case-- there is clearly segregation of plant fossils from primitive
to modern represented in the geological column. Plants have no means by which
to "run to higher ground", the infantile method that creationists suggest
was used by animals to sort themselves in order of intelligence.
- Modified with permission from the web site by
Ken Harding: "What Would We Expect to Find if
the World had Flooded? "
For greater detail visit his website